A refrigerator (colloquially fridge) is a common household appliance that consists of a thermally insulated compartment and a heat pump(mechanical, electronic, or chemical) that transfers heat from the inside of the fridge to its external environment so that the inside of the fridge is cooled to a temperature below the ambient temperature of the room.
Refrigeration is an essential food storage technique in developed countries. Lower temperatures in a confined volume lowers the reproduction rate of bacteria, so the refrigerator reduces the rate of spoilage.
A refrigerator maintains a temperature a few degrees above the freezing point of water. Optimum temperature range for perishable food storage is 3 to 5 ?C (37 to 41 ?F). A similar device that maintains a temperature below the freezing point of water is called a freezer.
The refrigerator replaced the icebox, which was a common household appliance for almost a century and a half prior. For this reason, a refrigerator is sometimes referred to as an icebox in American usage